By W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)
Alcohol abuse ranks one of the most typical and likewise the main critical environmental dangers to human well-being. Its value is heightened by means of the potential for prevention through removing of the behavior, notwithstanding, hardly ever exerted. The prevalence of deleterious results on human well-being has relentlessly risen long ago years for numerous elements. They contain migration of populations and, rather, elevated urbanization. hence, in a few elements of the realm, inhabitants teams formerly spared became concerned, that's additionally re flected within the expanding variety of breweries and distilleries within the constructing nations. Social, non secular, and gender-related boundaries to alcohol intake are loosening, and the monetary development of a few segments of populations now let them to shop for alcoholic drinks. hence the best percent upward thrust within the usa has lately been in black ladies. youngsters and teenagers drink extra alcoholic drinks than ever, and becoming alcohol abuse via pregnant girls has allow to a rise of the prevalence of the fetal alcohol syndrome. whereas the social and behavioral, together with psychiatric, results of alcoholism are astonishing, the gastrointestinal and, rather, hepatic manifestations are the main common somatic results, and persistent hepatic ailment in alcoholics looks to reason the best expense to society. certainly, mortality from liver cirrhosis is taken into account a competent index of alcohol intake in a country.
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S. Lieber Structural and Functional Alterations of the Mitochondria Studies with the electron microscope have revealed striking morphological alterations, including swelling and abnormal cristae in the liver mitochondria of alcoholics. Controlled studies in animals and man (Iseri et al. 1966; Lane and Lieber 1966; Lieber and Rubin 1968; Rubin and Lieber 1967; Arai et al. 1984) have shown that these changes are caused by alcohol itself rather than by other factors, such as a poor diet. These structural abnormalities are associated with functional impairments, especially decreased oxidation of fatty acids and of a variety of other substrates, including acetaldehyde (Hasumura et al.
1984) Increased Tolerance to Drugs and/or Potentiation of Drug Activity Chronic ethanol consumption results in proliferation of the membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, documented by subfractionation and chemical measurements in micro somes (Ishii et al. 1973) and by electron microscopy in animals and man (Iseri et al. 1966; Lane and Lieber 1966). The proliferation is thought to be "adaptive", since it is associated with enhanced activity of the microsomal enzymes involved in lipoprotein production and thus may contribute to the increased capacity of the liver to secrete fat as lipoproteins into the bloodstream (Baraona et al.
J Lipid Res 14: 337-343 Joly J-G, Hetu C, Mavier P, Villeneuve JP (1976) Mechanisms of induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes by ethanol. I. Limited role of microsomal phospholipids. Biochem Pharmacol 25: 1995-2001 Joly J-G, Villeneuve J-P, Mavier P (1977) Chronic ethanol administration induces a form of cytochrome P-450 with specific spectral and catalytic properties. Alcoholism 1: 17-20 Jorfeldt L, Juhlin-Dannfelt A (1978) The influence of ethanol on splanchnic and skeletal muscle metabolism in man.
Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology by W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)