By Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)
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Additional resources for Agriculture in the GATT
However, a GATT report in 1950 had shown that the use of quantitative restrictions on agricultural imports was widespread (GATT, 1950). ' The United States was making extensive use of quantitative controls on agricultural imports for protective purposes. US quotas on sugar dated back to 1934. Imports of cotton, wheat and wheat flour, and later butter and cheese were controlled under Section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. Rice, fats, and oils imports were restricted under the Second War Powers Act of 1942.
But with the United States clinging to its waiver and West Germany seeking one, with the EEC Six embarked 38 Agriculture in the GAIT upon the articulation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the time (late 1958) was not propitious for the advice to lead to radical action. Moreover, there was a sharp difference of views on the implications for trade policy of the Committee's findings and on the nature of the appropriate policy response. 5 COMMITTEE II The immediate action that arose from the discussion of the Haberler Committee's report was the establishment of three further committees, known as Committees I, II and III.
Effectively, the multilateral regulation of the non-commercial disposal of agricultural surpluses was turned over to the FAO, a body whose resolutions carried no legally binding obligations. The FAO, in 1954, had adopted a code of conduct to be observed in the operation of surplus disposal programmes (FAO, 1954). The principles and guidelines that constituted the code were designed to protect the commercial interests of third countries. Like the GATT resolution of the following year, they called for prior notification, avoidance of market disruption, additivity in consumption in recipient countries, and consultation with countries whose interests were affected.
Agriculture in the GATT by Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)