By Sascha W. Felix
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Extra info for Advances in shrimp aquaculture management
It has been reported recently that commercial feeds commonly contain 200–350 ppm of iron and that these levels may be detrimental to the health of aquatic animals (Blazer, 1992). The multilevel defence system to protect cells against chain reaction initiated by free radicals comprises superoxide dismutases (SOD) that are Cu, Zn and Mn dependent. The activities of both the cytosolic Cu-Zn SOD and michondrial Mn SOD in the liver of fish were significantly altered in response to changes in dietary intake of these minerals (Cowery, 1986).
Vitamin E Vitamin E is an essential fat soluble vitamin primarily functioning as an antioxidant. It is the major lipid soluble antioxidant in membranes where it protects unsaturated fatty acids. It has been shown to affect phagocytosis and humoral and cellular immune responses, and to enhance proliferation, chemotaxis and bactericidal activity of phagocytes. However, excessive dose may reduce intracellular killing ability if that killing depends on peroxidic damage to engulfed organisms. Vitamin E stimulates cell proliferation in immunopoietic organs, increases the number of antibody-producing plasma cells and stimulates T helper lymphocytes.
Planting should begin at the start of the rainy season. First, the soil should be tilled to a depth of 5 cm. Then suitable quality agricultural lime are added according to soil acidity. Five tons per ha of chicken manure and 35 kg per ha of 14-14-14 (NPK) are added subsequently. The prepared area is covered with a 5 cm thickness of rice straw. Cuttings are then planted at 30 cm intervals. (iv) Poisoning Predators and Pests Before shrimp PL/juveniles are stocked, eggs and larvae of competitors such as fishes, crabs etc.
Advances in shrimp aquaculture management by Sascha W. Felix