Read e-book online Adipose Tissue Biology PDF

By Christian Dani, Nathalie Billon (auth.), Michael E. Symonds (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461409640

ISBN-13: 9781461409649

ISBN-10: 1461409659

ISBN-13: 9781461409656

This publication is designed to supply a entire perception into present views and demanding situations in adipose tissue biology. In <i>Adipose Tissue Biology</i>, scientists and clinicians speak about adipocyte precursors, differentiation and development, brown and white adipose tissue, gender, irritation, nutritional and genetic determinants of fats mass, including evolutionary and developmental features of adiposity.

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2005a, b; Singh et al. 2006). The transforming growth factor b (TGFb) superfamily members, TGFb, BMPs and myostatin regulate the differentiation of many cell types, including adipocytes. TGF-b is a cytokine that stimulates preadipocyte proliferation and inhibits adipogenesis in vitro. TGFb and its signalling components are expressed in cultured adipocytes and adipose tissue. Transgenic overexpression of TGFb impairs the development of adipose tissue (Clouthier et al. 1997). Blockade of endogenous TGFb signalling by inhibition of SMAD3 increases adipogenesis.

This tightly regulated process is catalyzed by the uncoupling protein 1. Non-shivering thermogenesis is elicited by the sympathetic innervation from hypothalamic and brain stem control regions which are activated by cold sensation. In a cold environment, up to half of the metabolic rate of rodents can be attributed to non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. The high thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue recruited in the defense of normothermia may also play a role in the regulation of energy balance in the face of hypercaloric nutrition.

2009). A number of adipocyte-specific factors show rhythmic expression. Some examples are leptin, adipsin, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin, all of them showing circadian rhythmicity, For example, adiponectin shows both ultradian pulsatility and a diurnal variation (Gómez-Abellan et al. 2010). Recently, nocturnin, a circadianregulated gene, has been demonstrated to promote adipogenesis by stimulating PPAR-g nuclear translocation and enhancing its transcriptional activity (Kawai et al. 2010). 6 Future Perspectives This review provides a brief overview on various adipocyte cell lines that could be used in appropriate experiments to gain insight in the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipocyte differentiation.

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Adipose Tissue Biology by Christian Dani, Nathalie Billon (auth.), Michael E. Symonds (eds.)

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