By E. Anderson
Drawing on thousands of interviews with 15-22 12 months previous directly and homosexual male athletes in either the U.S. and the uk, this booklet explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and not worry being suggestion homosexual for behaviors that limited males of the former new release.
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Additional resources for 21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality
Although there was a gendered division of labor in agrarian work, there was less gendering of jobs and tasks compared to industrial life. Here, both men and women toiled in demanding labor. Accordingly, in some aspects, 28 Part I: 20th Century Jocks heterosexual relationships were more egalitarian before industrialization. Factory work, however, shifted revenue generation from inside the home to outside. Mom’s physical labor no longer directly benefited the family as it once did, and much of women’s labor therefore became unpaid and unseen.
In sport, young boys were socialized into this value of self-sacrifice, asking them to do so for the sake of team victory. As adults, this socialization taught them to sacrifice their health and well-being in the workplace for the sake of family. Most important to the factory owners, however, workers needed to be obedient to authority. This would help prevent them rebelling or unionizing. Sports taught boys this docility to leadership and authority. Accordingly, organized competitive team sports were funded by those who maintained control of the reproduction of material goods.
In short, Wilde gave us an image of the pervert; Freud explained the disease; and Kinsey promoted its prevalence. It is this last stage that initiated the processes of men looking to their homosocial groups, knowing that one in ten are gay, and speculating who it was. This homospeculation, however, remained just speculation. This is because, apart from “acting feminine,” nobody could (or can) accurately determine who is gay. There is no litmus test for homoseuxality. I thus argue that the awareness of homosexuality existing as a static trait, an unchanging sexual orientation, was first thrust into AngloAmerican culture through the visibility of the Wilde trials.
21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality by E. Anderson